obese man tight cloth

How Obesity is Defined?

Maintaining a normal body weight has become a concern in developed countries societies, since obesity is associated with various diseases, aesthetic and psychological aspects. Our body weight is regulated by various interrelated complex mechanisms that are controlled by food intake and energy expenditure. In our ancestors, fatty deposits were essential to ensure their survival, since the human body had great energy needs due to intense physical exertion and excessive caloric expenditure due to poor thermal insulation. It should be added that access to food was not insured because it was variable in time and difficult to obtain. In such circumstances, the heat balance tended to be negative so obesity was indicated a positive and desirable attribute. However, in the current welfare society circumstances have changed radically. Excess fatty deposits are widespread in much of the Western population, pose very serious threat to health. Morbid obesity has become a problem with serious metabolic, mechanical and aesthetic effects, and appears associated with other serious illnesses, to increased mortality.


Obesity is a chronic disease that has a multi-factorial origin, in whose genetic and environmental determinants are involved. It is manifested by an alteration in body composition, causing an increase in body fat. In most cases, the increase in adipose tissue deposits is accompanied by an increase in body weight, leading to a considerable increase in risk of comorbidity that affect the quality and life expectancy.


Although there are different methods for assessing body fat in our body, in clinical practice and epidemiological research, anthropometry is the most commonly used method. When making a diagnosis and classification of obesity, the World Health Organization (WHO), the International Obesity Taskforce (IOTF) and scientific societies, advise the use of anthropometric data such as weight, height and body circumference. Among the anthropometric measurements, the most widely used indicator in most of the population for assessing adiposity is the ratio of weight in kilograms and height in meter squared, known as Body Mass Index (BMI) or Quetelet index .

BMI = weight in kg / height in meter squared

This indicator is recommended by various scientific societies and international health-related organizations for use in general adult population as the best indicator of body fat, although athletes and the elderly are not considered.
Considering the BMI, is considered obesity when BMI value is above 30 kg / m 2. The WHO has proposed a classification of body weight and the degree of obesity as follows:

BMI < 18.5 = Underweight
BMI in 18.5-24.9 = Normal weight
BMI in 25-29.9 = Overweight
BMI in 30-34.9 = Obesity grade I
BMI in 35-39.9 = Obesity grade II
BMI >= 40 = Obesity grade III or morbid or extreme obesity.


Determining Your Daily Calorie Requirement

There are countless diets and nutritional concepts, but the equation for weight loss always remains the same: The calorie consumption must be higher than the caloric intake. It is therefore important to know how high the daily calorie requirement is, on the other hand how many calories you eat. Only, someone who deals with this subject and has an understanding of the needs of his body on the one hand, and the nutritional values of the food on the other hand, has a chance to lose weight permanently. That sounds simple and obvious too, however, most people rely on ready-made diet plans or simple slimming cures that are indeed implemented quickly and easily, but hardly promises lasting success.

It is worthwhile to have an understanding of calorie intake and calorie consumption. To achieve a negative energy balance, two screws can be rotated: on the nutrition and physical activity. But first it is important to find out how high the daily energy requirement is.

Determining your energy demand

The energy needs of a human being is made up of two components: the basal metabolic rate and active metabolic rate. The basal metabolic rate is the amount of energy needed by the body per day at complete rest to maintain the body functions.

The basal metabolic rate of a person is highly individual and depends not only on weight and height, but also age, gender, muscle mass, health (eg fever) and the insulation (eg clothing). An exact determination of the personal basal metabolism is achieved by the so-called calorimetry either by measuring the amount of heat emitted (direct calorimetry) or by measuring the oxygen consumption (indirect calorimetry). However, the methods of calorimetry extremely complicated and therefore outside of scientific research are not suitable for everyday use.

Instead, there are different calculation methods. A recent formula for determining the basal metabolic rate in 1990 proposed by Mifflin and St.Jeor, takes in account the body weight and height, the age and sex of the person.

The formula for men is:

BMR (men): 10 * (kg) + 6.25 * (cm) – 5 * Age (y) + 5

A 30-year-old man weighing 80 kg with a size of 180 cm would therefore have a basal metabolic rate of (10 * (80 kg) + 6.25 * (180 cm) – 5 * (30 years) + 5 = 800 + 1125-150 + 5) = 1,770 calories .

The formula for women is:

BMR (women): 10 * (kg) + 6.25 * (cm) – 5 * Age (y) – 161

A 27-year-old 65 kg heavy woman with a size of 170 cm would therefore have a basal metabolic rate of (10 * (65 kg) + 6.25 * (170 cm) – 5 * (27 years) – 161 = 650 + 1062.5 – 135 – Size 161) = 1416.5 calories .

Both formulas are almost identical, except for the difference of the last term (+5 for men and -161 in women).

As the BMR estimate the caloric needs of the body at complete rest, to determine the total daily calorie requirement of a normal person, the amount of energy consumed through physical activity must be added. Please note: the more you move, the more energy is converted and the higher the power dissipation. The total energy demand can be estimated by the previously determined BMR multiplied by an activity factor.

Extent of muscular work

very low BMR * 1.2 Just sitting or lying
light BMR * 1.375 Almost exclusively sitting with little or no physical activity
moderate BMR * 1.55 Mostly sitting, with interim additional standing / walking activities
heavy BMR * 1.725 Mostly standing / stop action / regular exercises
very heavy BMR * 1.9 Physically demanding occupation / hard workout (construction workers, farmers, miners, forest workers, athletes)

Let’s return to the example of the above calculated values for the basal metabolic rate of a man. This was 1,770 calories. If he performs moderate muscular work, his BMR must be multiplied by 1.55 to obtain how many calories he needs daily. His average daily total energy consumption is: 1.55 x 1770 kcal = 2743.5 calories.

You do not have to make these calculations by yourself. There are online calculators that you can use to determine how many calories your body needs daily. This calculator from weightofthenation.org does perfectly the job and even tell you how many calories you need to reduce to lose weight.

swimming for weight loss

What Exercises To Lose Weight Should Be Your Focus?

Every exercise you can imagine can help you lose weight. Of course, some work better than others, and you want to know about different exercises too that can help motivate you. One thing you need to understand right now is the importance of cardiovascular exercise. If you think you can get your workout through strength conditioning and forgo the part where you move around, you’re sorely mistaken.

If you don’t want to move all over creation, there are great aerobic workouts that can be done in the comfort of your own home. One of the best ways to get an aerobic workout and help yourself lose weight faster is to use a stair stepper. There are different types of aerobic exercises you can do with a stair stepper, and once you crank up the music, you’ll feel motivated enough.

Personally, I like to go walking or jogging on the beach and in the park. Maybe you’re not the type of person that likes to walk or jog. What about using a bike? Biking is fun, and you can go all over the place on a bicycle. When my mom was losing all her weight, she would walk everywhere with her friends. We would walk with her sometimes, too, but what she started doing with us was going on exploratory bike rides. It was fun!

Swimming is also one of the best exercises for losing weight according to weightofthenation.org. Do you have a place where you can go swimming regularly? Many people find out that they don’t necessarily need a backyard pool to enjoy swimming as a regular exercise. There are plenty more great exercises to get started with if these aren’t as appealing to you. Remember there are team sports, and you can always go hit the gym!

woman with ovarian cancer

Ovarian Cancer Is Not So Silent – It Has Symptoms!

According to the CDC, ovarian cancer is the second most frequent women gynecologic cancer, but the one with the highest mortality rate because of late diagnosis in most cases. This is why many call it the “silent murderer”. However, ovarian cancer is not so silent. Many studies have been conducted in women who have been ovarian cancer survivors, as there are also many testimonies that have been collected about it. Almost all women (if not all) agree on one thing: they had a hunch that something was going on inside their body. Women in majority know their bodies perfectly, they know if it their menstruation is normal or not, what time of year they feel better… So, far from medical examinations, it is women themselves who must realize that something strange is going on in their body and must go to the doctor promptly. Whether or not ovarian cancer, you should know what’s going on. And always remember that this disease progresses very quickly. These are the symptoms or signs to pay attention to according to Dr Jennifer Ashton.

Changes in menstrual periods

The first thing to consider, is if you normally have periods regularly or not. From that, you have to consider whether changes in menstrual periods are out of the ordinary. If you notice that you have, but you’re not sure how much, it is best to begin to bring an exhausted control on ‘those days’. Just point in monthly bleeding days and counting passing from one period to another. If the changes are persistent (several times in a few months), go to the gynecologist.


Another early symptoms of this disease is the bloating. Feeling the abdomen full and tight, swollen belly so commonplace does not bode well. Of course that does not mean inevitably ovarian cancer, but the best is to go to the gynecologist and tell what is happening to you so that he will have to decide whether to submit specific evidence or not.

Pelvic or abdominal pain

This is one of the clearest signs that warn of a possible ovarian cancer. If you feel pelvic or abdominal pain frequently and do not find a logical explanation, then it is best to see a doctor, specifically a gynecologist and if necessary, you perform a scan to check everything is in order.

If, for example, you think you’ve had these pains about 12 days in a single month, then you should do something about it. Change and persistence differentiate these symptoms are due to ovarian cancer or other disease.

Stomach problems

Not only bloating can warn you of suffering ovarian cancer, there are many other problems related to the stomach and digestive system that can put you on alert about it. Constipation, cramps, colic, indigestion, vomiting, any change in bowel … Women over 50 have to be especially attentive to such things as changes are normally associated with age, when what they might be going it would be much more serious. If you suffer from one of these disorders too often, ask your gynecologist appointment as soon as possible.

Feeling sated quickly

Women who have passed this cruel and severe illness say they experienced a sudden loss of appetite, and felt very quickly sated when eating. This symptom is most noticeable in women who have always eaten well and suddenly stop. This of course leads to weight loss.

Urgent and / or frequent urination

Suddenly one day, you start to feel the urge to urinate frequently, having to go to the bathroom several times during the day and even waking up at night, you can not control. Then something is not right. This fact, which is usually accompanied by pain or burning when you pee, may be due to weak pelvic floor muscles or a urinary tract infection, but if you suffer too often, then it’s time to go to the gynecologist and get tests.

Loss or unexplained weight gain

Although unexplained weight loss usually does not put anyone warning about a possible disease (apart from being in a state of extreme thinness), the fact is that we must be attentive to it and also weight gain. Something bad, it does not have to be ovarian cancer, is going on in our body, so it is advisable to see a doctor and gynecologist. Because in these cases there is no better application of the phrase “prevention is better than cure”.

women gynecologic health

Some Important Facts About Cervical Cancer

– It is one of the most common cancers of the female genital tract.

– In general, cancer begins when normal cells acquire a genetic mutation that transforms them into abnormal cells that grow and multiply uncontrollably and also become “immortal”.

– The accumulation of abnormal cells form tumor and invades surrounding tissues and can spread it to progress throughout the body. It is still unclear what causes this cell transformation, although it is known that HPV infection plays an important role. However, HPV is a common virus and most women do not develop cancer just for this reason.

– What are the risk factors:

* Multiple sexual partners: the more that is the number for one of the two partners, the greater the chance of contracting HPV infection.
* Early sexual activity (under 18): immature cells appear to be more susceptible to the precancerous changes that HPV can cause.
* Deficient immune system: typical of people living with HIV or transplanted or otherwise.
* Smoking: although the exact mechanism is not well known, especially when associated with HPV infection.

– Half of cervical cancers occur between 35 and 55 years old.

– Most cervical cancers are squamous type and come from the cells that line the surface of the cervix. Those from the endocervical canal that is covered by glandular cells are called adenocarcinomas.

– Most often, this cancer is asymptomatic, especially at the beginning. It may be associated with genital or postcoital bleeding between periods or menopause. Sometimes there may be bloody or smelly vaginal discharge. Pelvic pain during sex, is also reported by some patients. Get more details about these symptoms here.

– Thanks to prevention through Pap smear or Pap test, death from this cancer has decreased dramatically over the past 50 years.

– Depending on the extent of the tumor, treatment can range from surgical removal of the tumor to more radical surgeries or which supplement deb with chemotherapy and / or radiotherapy.

foods to avoid to lower triglycerides

5 Natural Steps to Lower Triglycerides

Have you recently visited your doctor and he said that your triglyceride level was high (over 150 mg / dl)? Although triglycerides like cholesterol when high can lead to health issues, do not panic! There are simple, safe and natural ways to reduce them, while adequately fed.

1. Increase your intake of dietary fiber by

  • Replacing white bread with whole grain bread;
  • Eating 1 tablespoon of oat bran ½ cup water in fasting;
  • Eating at least 3 fruits with fiber a day: apples, oranges, pears, mandarin, pineapple, guava;
  • Consuming an abundance of vegetable salad before lunch and dinner.

2. Reduce the consumption of cereals, rice, pasta, breads, etc. To do that, you can:

  • Eat half of the rice you are used to;
  • Take less pasta at lunch and add to the vegetable sauce to help you be satiated;
  • Rather than accompany your coffee or afternoon tea with pastries, pies and bread, baked salty snacks,  choose corn or 1 tortilla with cheese.

3. Limit consumption of sugars

  • Use sugar substitutes to sweeten your drinks;
  • If you like sweets, prefer fresh or dried fruit for dessert after lunch or dinner;
  • Use fresh fruits to fill cakes instead of fruit in syrup;
  • Prefer natural drinks instead of juices or drinks packaged and processed.

4. Take care of the type of fat you eat

  • Garnish your salad with 1 teaspoon of olive oil instead of mayonnaise;
  • Choose low-fat dairy such as skim milk and fresh white cheese;
  • Eliminate from your diet all kinds of fast foods;
  • Use margarine without trans fats instead of butter;
  • Remove fatty skin from chicken and beef.

5. Reduce Weight

  • Practice exercise at least 30 minutes daily;
  • Drink 8-10 glasses of water daily; 1 before each meal;
  • Seek the advice of a professional nutritionist.

For additional tips on lowering triglycerides naturally, check out the resources links below:

Lowering Cholesterol for Heart Health

Why Lowering Cholesterol is Important

There are more than 100 million people in America who suffer from high cholesterol, and this is an alarming statistic because high cholesterol can mean that you are at increased risk of clogged arteries, heart attacks, and strokes.

The good news is that it is possible to lower your cholesterol, and if you do this right it can greatly decrease your risk of heart problems in the future.

It’s important to note that dietary cholesterol does not have a direct impact on blood cholesterol – for a while it was thought that this was the case, and people were advised against eating things like eggs, because it was thought that they increase cholesterol, when in truth they are actually very good for you in other ways if they are included in your diet in moderation.

So, what should you be doing to control your cholesterol?

Well, it has been found that there are two types of cholesterol – LDL and HDL, and that while LDL cholesterol is bad for you, HDL cholesterol is actually good. Your goal should be to lower the level of LDL cholesterol while keeping HDL cholesterol levels high.

The way to do this is to consume a healthy diet that contains the right number of calories for your daily activity levels, and the right balance of healthy fats. Yes, eating certain healthy fats can help you to achieve a good balance of LDL vs HDL cholesterol.

Get your cholesterol levels tested periodically – especially if you have a family history of heart disease or strokes. Your doctor will give you advice about what you a should be eating for a cholesterol lowering diet, and the best exercise to do, to get your cardiovascular system performing optimally and to protect your heart health for many years to come.